Presentations in the MOOC are prepared meticulously. This means that when the explanation of the lecturer is video-recorded the text, the illustrations etc. have to be exactly known. Often an autocue is used to help the lecturer to give a perfect presentation. This careful preparation differs from a traditional lecture.
- Select the learning objectives you want to achieve. What do you want the students to have a better understanding of as a result of the presentation?
- Identify the key points.
- Structure your key points very clearly (see annexe 1).
- Think up how to treat the key points (see the explanation of a key point).
- Think up other possibilities to support the presentation.
- Select possibilities to illustrate or explain topics with pictures, models, video, PowerPoint slides. See annexe 2 and 3.
- Decide whether you want to make use of questions and tests.
- Decide whether additional knowledge clips are necessary to explain difficult concepts.
- Outline the detailed script for the presentation: Are the qualities to be achieved comprehensible, relevant, interesting and insightful?
- Prepare the full text of the introduction, explanation of the key points and the summary. These will be used in the autocue (if available). Prepare the AV-materials.
- Explain the relationships between the subject of the course and relevant assignments in the unit.
- Present an overview of the main points and their relevance.
- Possibilities to start the presentation: Rule-example-rule or example-rule-example. (rule= a statement, a prequestion, a concept, a definition, a technique, a problem, a procedure, a thesis, a demonstration, an application etc.).
- Attract the students’ attention. Spark the interest of the students by a problem, a thesis, a picture.
- Link up with other study activities and to link up with the students’ previous knowledge.
EXPLANATION OF A KEY-POINT
- More detail and explanations.
- Do not try to use too many new concepts quickly; introduce new concepts step by step.
- Make use of interesting and relevant examples.
- Take the logical steps in your explanation, not too small or too large.
- Relate to other points in the unit and the MOOC.
- Give directions (when relevant) for carrying out a problem-solving procedure or other procedure (model behaviour).
- Give a systematic summary of the main points.
- Link with coming presentations, assignments, tests in the chapter of the MOOC.
- Link with the test.
- Use the English language correctly and have the appropriate vocabulary.
- Be audible; have a proper speaking rate.
- Show enthusiasm through facial expression, eye-movement/contact, gestures, body movement, vocal delivery, selection of words, use of examples, pictures etc.
- Breakthrough the monotony by vocal variation in pace, power and tone during the presentation. Other techniques include asking questions and using AV
- Centre for Instructional technology. Building a Coursera Course. Duke University. Version 2.02013
- Personal communication Thomas Hurxkens Online-learning laboratory. Leiden University. The Netherlands (2015)
- J. Nedermeijer, How to give a lecture: a few reminders. 1991 IOWO Radboud University, the Netherlands.
- D.A. Bligh, What’s the use of lectures? Harmondsworth, 1979
- M. Svinicki and W.J. McKeachie, McKeachies’s Teaching tips. International Edition Wadsworth, 2012
Annexe 1 Possible organizations of a presentation
- Hierarchic classification (point and sub-points)
- Chain, necklace, spiral ordering or the network of the key points
- Comparison, thesis or logical dichotomy
or combinations of the organizations
Annexe 2 Use audiovisuals for various purposes:
- Emphasize (pre-planned) points
- Increase the attractiveness of a lecture
- Bring the outside world (micro and macro) into the MOOC
- Stimulate the students’ attention and active attention
Annexe 3 Top Ten Slide Tips http://www.garrreynolds.com/preso-tips/design/
- Keep it Simple
- Limit bullet points & text
- Limit transitions & builds (animation)
- Use high-quality graphics
- Have a visual theme, but avoid using PowerPoint templates
- Use appropriate charts
- Use colour well
- Choose your fonts well
- Use video or audio
- Spend time in the slide sorter
More information is given on the website.
Jan Nedermeijer, PUM Netherlands Senior Experts. September 2015