Analysis of procrastination among university students by Irshad Hussaina and Sarwat Sultan . Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 5 (2010) 1897–1904.
Abstract: The present study focused on analyzing the factors of procrastination and its effects on learning of university students. It was conducted on 500 students and 40 teachers of the Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan through survey approach. The study concluded that procrastination effects on the academic performance of students in terms of classroom learning and participation in activities, submission of their assignments, preparing for the examinations and achievement. Likewise, the work load of assignments’ and improper time management by the students caused procrastination.
The conclusions in this article are very interesting and usefull. They explain a lot about the problems concerning study success.
1. University students delay in preparing and submitting their assignments & presentations and preparing for the examinations. They become self-excusive in taking part in classroom activities; working in groups and/or in collaborative or cooperative work, displaying their work in classrooms or exhibitions for competitions due to fear of criticism, and even reading/ or working on assignments in the library. They feel hesitation and shy in taking academic initiatives and starting working on an assignment or presentation or some other academic work.
2. Students appeared to procrastinate and unable to complete their work in time due to their illness, social and family problems, lack of motivation and interest; overconfidence, laziness, negative attitude of their teachers, lack of guidance and counseling or mentoring from teachers, negative comments of teachers on their work: assignments and presentations, lack of coordination with their class fellows, too much work at the same time to complete resulting in academic stress, habit of dependency, communication gap, and enjoying the company of their class fellows. Sometimes, some unseen problems/ or circumstances compel students delay in their academic work.
3. Procrastination has negative effects on the learning of students resulting in their low achievements in examinations, or it causes failure in the examinations, or it creates fear of examinations, resulting in depression and anxiety, lowering their morale. They feel hesitation in starting their academic work loosing their competition spirit. Students become prey to inferiority complex and finally, they discontinue their studies.
4. Procrastinating students cannot manage their studies and they search for short cuts to overcome their academic deficiencies using unfair means. Low achievements and consistent failures develop hostile and intimidating attitude among university students resulting to develop insulting and aggressive temperament. They involve themselves in immoral practices deteriorating their morality. Procrastination creates some unhealthy practices associated with unaccepted social attitudes or values including addiction. Such problems develop de-motivation among university students resulting to develop the habits of drinking, smoking and taking sleeping pills at nights which make them passive creating anxiety & depression and consequently they discontinue or withdraw their studies.
5. The remedial measures on how to control or minimize procrastination include provision of proper guidance and counselling services at the campus, appreciation and positive comments on students’ assignments, presentations, group work, displays and other academic activities, provision of appropriate encouragement and reward to students on their good academic performance, developing and maintaining academic relationships with fellow students and teachers and sharing problems with each others for their catharsis and to seek appropriate solution through consultative process, division of work or assigning the work to the students according to their potential and aptitude to reduce or minimize the procrastination among university students.
See also Procrastination