A summary is given of the text in the article concerning the definition of the flipped classroom, active learning, importance of a good design and some conclusion of the author.
The complete article and the literature can be found here: A Flipped Classroom Model for Developing Universities in Developing Countries, Muesser C. Nat. Global Learn 2015 – Berlin, Germany, April 16-17, 2015.
A flipped classroom method has two main components: delivery of instruction online and move active learning into the classroom.
In developing a flipped classroom method, strategies for these two components are varied and flexible. Therefore, while developing this approach for developing universities in-class and out-of-class activities should be chosen based on student and university needs.
‘The following diagram (Figure 1.2) shows a generic flipped classroom model for developing universities.’ ‘ As indicated earlier, students are expected to study the online learning materials before coming to class, participate in discussions and activities in the class, check their understanding after the class and communicate with classmates and instructor when they feel the need. Having an opportunity to communicate with classmates and instructor increases student engagement and motivation’.
Figure 1.2: A flipped classroom model for developing universities
Facilitate active learning
To meet the needs, a model of flipped classroom, integrating classroom lectures, tutorial hours, and online learning, is developed to facilitate active learning.
The out-of-class activities will include the required video lectures and in-class activities will involve interactive learning activities. The required guidelines will be provided to students and they will be asked to listen and watch the video lectures, and study on the assignments before the class and use their time in the classroom for group-works and discussions. For example, the flipped classroom format for History course will incorporate two face-to-face tutorial hours a week facilitated by the instructor, and online delivery of theory and background information. The students will use the online lecture notes to prepare for the tutorials, enabling them to participate in discussions and ask questions.
The instructor uses the lecture time to explore provocative questions and present case studies.’
good design is a must
´The flipped classroom model might have different designs for different courses as each one has different delivery methods for the most effective structures for student learning and engagement’.
‘The effectiveness of any blended learning program is depending on good design. Instructors will work with e-learning specialists and instructional designers while designing their flipped classrooms. They will have regular meetings to discuss their observations, share ideas, and reflect on the process. IT services and the Department Course Coordinators for timetabling and space allocation will also be involved in the development process.’
‘There is a general consensus that universities must support students to prepare for future learning as well as their lives beyond the university. For students, flipped classroom offers a student-centred approach with more engagement and interaction, as well as self-directed learning using the online materials. The approach encourages students to learn out of the classroom at anytime and anywhere with their own pace. They will be provided alternative ways to learn and allowed to use whatever study strategies they find most useful.
More students will be able to take high-demand courses as enrolment will be no longer restricted by the size of the classrooms. As an added advantage for first-year students in a large class, instructors will be aware of who is missing classes and will be able to approach students who may be struggling. The tutorial hours can be used far more than the course content; students develop skills in communication, team building, collaborative problem solving and critical thinking skills.
Faculty members will be encouraged to think more creatively about teaching and learning, pedagogy and learner involvement. They will no longer have to deliver the basic theory in lectures; instead they can expand on topics by including more research and real-life experiences.
Universities also benefit from this approach by providing enhanced learning for first-year students and opening up the conversation about student learning and ways of teaching. The university as a whole benefits from a systematic focus on transforming the learning experience of students in large enrolment classes.’