A summary of the text in the article concerning the definition of the flipped classroom, active learning, the importance of a good design and some conclusions of the author.
The complete article and the literature are here: A Flipped Classroom Model for Developing Universities in Developing Countries, Muesser C. Nat. Global Learn 2015 – Berlin, Germany, April 16-17, 2015.
A flipped classroom method has two main components: delivery of instruction online and moving active learning into the classroom.
In developing a flipped classroom method, strategies for these two components are varied and flexible. Therefore, in-class and out-of-class activities should be chosen based on student and university needs while developing this approach for developing universities.
‘The following diagram (Figure 1.2) shows a generic flipped classroom model for developing universities.’ ‘As indicated earlier, students are expected to study the online learning materials before class, participate in discussions and activities, check their understanding after class and communicate with classmates and instructor when necessary. Having an opportunity to communicate with classmates and instructors increases student engagement and motivation.
Figure 1.2: A flipped classroom model for developing universities
Facilitate active learning
To meet the needs, a model of the flipped classroom, integrating classroom lectures, tutorial hours, and online learning, is developed to facilitate active learning.
The out-of-class activities will include the required video lectures, and in-class activities will involve interactive learning activities. The required guidelines will be provided to students, and they will be asked to listen and watch the video lectures, study the assignments before the class and use their time in the classroom for group discussions. For example, the flipped classroom format for the History course will incorporate two face-to-face tutorial hours a week facilitated by the instructor and online delivery of theory and background information. The students will use the online lecture notes to prepare for the tutorials, enabling them to participate in discussions and ask questions.
The instructor uses the lecture time to explore provocative questions and present case studies.’
A good design is a must.
‘The flipped classroom model might have different designs for different courses as each has different delivery methods for the most effective structures for student learning and engagement’.
‘The effectiveness of any blended learning program depends on good design. Instructors will work with e-learning specialists and instructional designers while designing their flipped classrooms. They will have regular meetings to discuss their observations, share ideas, and reflect on the process. IT services, and the Department Course Coordinators for timetabling and space allocation will also be involved in the development process.’
‘There is a consensus that universities must support students to prepare for future learning and their lives beyond the university. For students, a flipped classroom offers a student-centred approach with more engagement and interaction and self-directed learning using online materials. The approach encourages students to learn outside the classroom at any time and anywhere at their own pace. They will be provided alternative ways to learn and allowed to use whatever study strategies they find most useful.
More students can take high-demand courses as enrolment will no longer be restricted by the size of the classrooms. As an added advantage for first-year students in a large class, instructors will be aware of who is missing classes and can approach students who may be struggling. The tutorial hours can be used far more than the course content; students develop communication, team building, collaborative problem solving and critical thinking skills.
Faculty members will be encouraged to think more creatively about teaching and learning, pedagogy and learner involvement. They will no longer have to deliver the basic theory in lectures; instead, they can expand on topics by including more research and real-life experiences.
Universities also benefit from this approach by providing enhanced learning for first-year students and opening up the conversation about student learning and ways of teaching. The university benefits from a systematic focus on transforming students’ learning experience in large enrolment classes.’